EDS 103 Theories of Learning

Labor my knowledge

lego head

I would love to watch a real classroom scenario wherein vibrant discussions among students are ongoing, wherein students are encouraged to formulate their own thoughts about a certain topic and share their questions, analysis and discoveries with their classmates. I could just imagine the energy each student has that is vibrating within the walls, those bright eyes that eagerly observes what is happening around them and their ears that is so attentive to each other’s comments. These are students who would not accept textbook information as their over-all knowledge, these students would not allow knowledge from teachers to be just injected to them.

how does it workBefore they reached that point of being their own source of knowledge, motivated individuals who are discontent of plain teacher-centered teaching, there were once children who went through different growth levels. As they were growing different pieces of information with the help of their own environment are being added to their existing knowledge. As they were trying to make sense of things in their environment some things are very easy to understand but there so much that they could not easily grasp as well, so they go through assimilation -> disequilibrium then finally, accommodation.

tutoringAs a child continues to grow he or she would need a help to do some tasks or understand some information that is just a little bit advance for him or for her. Now this part is crucial for a learner, remember at the beginning of this journal I was talking about students who are the drivers of their own knowledge, who construct it and not absorbed knowledge from someone else. I believe that we could initiate the mindset of each child to construct their own knowledge from the moment we started assisting them. When the assistance we give encourages the child to think, leads the child to the path of discovery and triggers the mind of a child to analyze images, objects and ideas  then, this is where independent learner starts. At a very young age the child is exposed to the practice of I-will-labor-for-my-own-knowledge and the child will think that my-teacher-is-my-support not my source of knowledge, and if this is continued throughout he or she whole child growth then we all know that he or she will be an independent learner. But if instead of exposing the child to this kind of learning environment, the child is exposed to too much assistance causing the child to observe how tasks should be done and to just passively sit and listen to the teacher now this style creates dependent students. He or she will be feeling lost and frustrated that she could not do things on her own. I believe that the child could still learn but will not reach his or her full potential because of how he or she was exposed to learning.

constructivistMaybe this is something that we could ask ourselves, how were we guided and helped by our parents, siblings and teachers when we were growing up? How did we get our knowledge when we were still in school? How is our mind being shaped now that we are adults?

What we have read about this module is a good knowledge to be added in our minds but, could you say that laboring for your own knowledge is good for you? Or for you it’s better to be fed by textbooks, teachers or whoever you think is credible? I could see the appeal why one person would choose textbooks, teachers and any credible person; it saves time, money and energy, information would more likely be accurate anyway, maybe the person is already contented with his current knowledge or maybe with his or her lifestyle does not need so much information and etc.

We can’t change how we were assisted or how we were taught when we were students, but we can definitely offer something better to our students, something to many of us did not experience, it’s the “sense of being empowered”, when we let students to be laborers and drivers of their knowledge we are empowering them to empower themselves to learn what they need, to maximize their abilities in building up their knowledge. When our assistance is initially based on the child’s ability and guides them to reach their full potential at any given growth level, when we provide activities for kids to challenge what they already know then we know that as teachers we have encouraged and led them to the way of constructing their on knowledge.

References:

UCD Teaching and Learning. Constructivism and Social Constructivism. Retrieved from:

http://www.ucdoer.ie/index.php/Education_Theory/Constructivism_and_Social_Constructivism

Huitt & Hummel (2003). Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development. Retrieved from:

http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/piaget.html

 

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EDS 103 -Theories of Learning

Cognitive Theories of Learning & how it has helped me

This module is both complex and interesting for me. There were moments that I felt I just had enough of words, phrases and what they mean with my study. Each concept are highly informative and educational, it gives me mental visions of puzzle pieces falling in to right places whenever a concept gives explanation to how my mind works. overflowingThere were moments when I felt that pieces of information are almost the same with what I had previously read from another PDF. Then I’ll remember it’s because this Module is so much about how my mind works, portions of readings are mentioned in another readings too.

I’ve told you before about my tutoring experience with an ESL company. Every class has only 25 minute allotted time. I did not get the logic of it, I thought that classes are highly expensive but with very minimal chance of learning, like I have to rush finishing the whole material in one time slot or else I’ll cram the next day. I just could not get the logic behind a language class with only 25 minute time slot, there’s just so much explaining to do to person who could barely understand my words, who had to think in their own language and then translate each local word in English words before they could verbalize their thoughts and emotions.

There was an “aha moment” while reading the Primacy/Recency Effect by Sousa I was thinking maybe this is the reason behind the 25 minute class. I’m not sure if the people who structured the class based it on the Primacy /Recency Effect. Whether they did or did not is beside the point. Now I could focus my mind to how beneficial this could be to those kids and adults who spent 5 days in a week just to learn and be more familiar to the English language. Now that I know when their focus is more on the lesson or on something else I could pattern our tutoring class to that.

I already know I have STM and LTM prior to this module. As I was finishing my bachelor degree there were instances that I would feel it’s just too much, there’s no more space for other information. Admittedly I feel the same way right now, there’s just too much information to digest, too much principles and concept to understand then commit to memory. Fortunately, part of the reading is about how to increase the chance of understanding and retaining information.

You can just imagine how this week’s study has been a challenge and a good help to me, not just on how I understood my mind better, but also how I could maximize my time with students lastly, but not the least is how I could go on with more reading to complete my study of PTC without feeling the pressure that I’m no longer able to quickly and fully understand and retain what I read.

Clear practical application of this is to maximize my study by making sure that all distractions that will take up load will be eliminated, sounds or noise that would cause me to divide my attention from my study should be stopped. There should be a conscious and continuous intention from me to focus my mind to what I’m reading and to use both words and images to understanding and retain concepts.

Reference:

  1. Primacy/Receny Effect, David A. Sousa
    http://www.lancsngfl.ac.uk/secondary/math/download/file/How%20the%20Brain%20Learns%20by%20David%20Sousa.pdf
  2. Cognitive Load theory: implications of cognitive load theory on the design of learning, Paul A. Krischner, (2002) https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/7883/a38d51593d21d06db2ec1375e0507220b576.pdf
  3. Dual Coding Theoretical Model of Reading, Mark Sadoski & Allan Paivio (2004), file:///C:/Users/HP/AppData/Local/Temp/Dual%20Coding%20Theory%20-%20Mark%20Sadoski-2.pdf
  4. https://archive.org/stream/ilhem_20150323_1458/[John_Santrock]_Educational_Psychology,_5th_Editio_djvu.txt

 

EDS 111 – Principles of Teaching

Comfortable or accountable?

accountability

How would you describe your teaching perspectives prior to your reading of the module resources?  How would you compare your prior conceptions about learning and teaching to the ideas discussed in the resources of this module?  What factors influenced your conceptions about teaching and learning?

> Well Teacher-Centered teaching was still my choice teaching style and I still want I to practice until after I read and watched the resources of this Module. This is also evident to how I defined teaching and learning in Activity 4 Part 1. This is not a surprise though, it was the teaching I received when I was a student so I thought that if it worked for me, it will work on my students as well.

   Well compared to the 21st Century education, my concepts of learning and teaching is more of “I” I know the content so I will teach and I know how to teach it better than anyone else.

Have your perspectives’ changed after studying the module resources?  How or how not?

> Yes it has, by being exposed to the 21st century teaching skills that this Module had provided. It has changed the setup of mind from the old-school way which is the teacher centered to student centered learning. Specifically to let go of my assumption that when I become a teacher I could still teach like how I got my education in school, since I learned that way I’m thinking my students will learn also.

How willing or open are you in challenging your prior conceptions about teaching and learning, and applying contemporary teaching perspectives and approaches that would better serve the need of the students for more holistic and active learning?

> Very much willing, even to the point that I would want to develop the skill of persuasion if in case the school that I’ll be joining in does not believe or practice 21st century teaching styles  to make them see the benefits of this to the students.

   I would like to experience the results of not feeding my fears of trying something different, of not being in my comfort zone. Because those results will be my motivation to break more walls and be global

Which among the contemporary teaching perspectives and approaches discussed in this module resonates with you?  Why?

> My only teaching exposure is ESL. As I tutor I practice more airtime for my students, I’ll just speak to let them know that I’m listening and that I believe in their ideas. It really has to be Student-Centered Learning because verbalizing their thoughts is the only way for them to be a better speaker of the language.
If I don’t formulate open-ended questions about the subject matter the class would just mostly be a reading a class. They know that by engaging their mind to answer my questions( whether oral or written) their mindset will be changed from initially thinking in Chinese then translate it to English when they speak to a mindset that is now mapping ideas in their head in English language and then smoothly verbalizing their thoughts using English words as well.

Knowing your inclination for specific teaching perspectives, how can you ensure that you will not fall into the trap of a one-size-fits-all teaching  and that you will observe the teaching principles as intellectual and varied work – “adopting appropriate teaching roles to support learning goals” (Eberly Center, 2015)?

  
>Having accountability partner / colleague, one who is good at practicing hands-on learning of 21st Century Education to check on me anytime. At least this would keep me on my toes if I’m practicing it or not and I have some one I can collaborate with.

> This one may seem very far-fetch to practice all the time but I’ll try, whenever I feel comfortable with my pedagogy then I know I’m not practicing the 21st Century Education principles.

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I go crazy whenever my plans do not push through. It frustrates me whenever I don’t have the control of situations. I don’t like to plan all the details but those parts of an activity that I planned, I expect them to happen the way I have envision them in my head. It gives me the feeling of relief that there are things in my future that will not rattle my self-control and will not put my patience to test.

For me having the ability to do the things I need to do and control situations gives me high sense of confidence on the outcome. I know that this feeling stemmed from several past experiences of being left out or forgotten. Whatever their reasons were it had pushed be to be so cautious and independent.

The reason why I started my blog this way is because, 21st Century Education is so not me. It’s the antonym of my core. It’s about student teaching her classmates through her own understanding, it’s about being out there directing them to find answers to their own questions, just like in the video students learning is not concentrated to discussions in a classroom set-up, we can go out let the students see it for themselves, may it be in the park, through field trips or in laboratories. It’s all about being creative and resourceful when passing knowledge to students not be so dependent on textbooks, letting them use use technology to express their understanding, and it’s about longer air-time for students, lime light on them not me.

Practicing the principles of 21st Century Education will put teachers in situations of constant change, unpredictable students’ questions and more-patience-needed scenarios, these should be good for me or, I should say way better. If this is what it takes for my kids to feel like they are now really students, they are now open to learning and studying then I should say not having a strict plan in class is good, less control for a vibrant class is worth it.

I believe there’s nothing wrong to plan ahead of time, to control situation and to be self-reliant. It is when we boxed them to a textbook-teaching with little room for hands-on learning and self expression of their understanding that keeps us teachers safe in our comfort zone but limiting their learning. It definitely will not rattle me as teacher if I will just mainly focus on a book that I have read so many times, share its ideas to my students again and again. I’m sure being self-reliant in that scenario will not be a problem, it will be  natural of me not be needing any other teacher’s point of  view on my teaching since I “think” I have become a master on my subject.  But this module had thought me a very important lesson, a teacher has to be open to collaboration, teamwork to give the best to their students, not just those students who are coming to their classes but students of colleagues as well. Self reliance according to this module should be change to a sense of teamwork.

What I have to remember as a teacher is not to prioritize the feeling  of ease or comfortable while teaching but I have to remind my self  how accountable I am to the time my students spent in the school. The whole time they are enrolled should be at least equal to the amount of learning they are getting from us.

We want our students to conquer the world, let the sky be their limit then our pedagogy should mirror that.

Resources:

1.) Student-Centered Learning (21st Century Education) (Pear Tree Education Inc. (2013, February 21). Student-centered learning (21st century education) [Video file].

2.) Reimagining Classrooms: Teachers as Learners and Students as Leaders | Kayla Delzer |   TEDxFargo (TEDx Talks. (2015, October 13). The power of student-driven learning: Shelley Wright at TEDxWestVancouverED [Video file].)

3.) Hands-On Learning / Experiential Education (21st Century Education) (Pear Tree Education Inc. (2013, February 14). Hands-on learning / Experiential education (21st Century Education) [Video file].)

4.) Project-Based Learning Challenges (21st Century Education) (Pear Tree Education Inc. (2016, December 11). Project-based learning challenges (21st century education) [Video file].

5.) Collaboration / Finnish Education (21st Century Education) (Pear Tree Education Inc. (2013, February 20). Collaboration / Finnish education (21st century education) [Video file].)

EDS 111 – Principles of Teaching

 

Expectations. Standard.

I grew up in a family orientation that parents have the full authority and they have the last say on everything. If they decide on something the rest of the family will follow, objection will be entertained with minimal attention. This thinking is also carried over to my perception in school. For me it was ideal if teachers will be accountable to their students and principal is the head of all.  It looks good in the organizational chart. One thinks of the policy, what to decide, when to decide and imposes – looks very organized and structured avoids confusion and lack of indirection.

There were also times that the principal would sit in our classes, observe the class and jot down notes. One of my teachers (but not the only teacher who did this) prior to this our teacher will inform us that class observation will happen soon and that we have to practice for that. So what we did is, a discussion took place and every now and then my teacher would tell us to remember particular parts of the lesson because she will ask them during the class observation by the principal. Many paid attention and many took notes. Observation day came and it seemed that the principal was happy, there was a vibrant discussion and we participated well in answering our teacher’s questions. The next day our teacher told us the positive result of the principal’s observation and we were all happy to have helped her passed her classroom observation.

Carmichael (1982) discussed the authority and power position

held by the principal in which the principal is viewed as all-

wise and all-competent by the staff on the lower rungs of the

power-structure ladder. This “omnicompetence” has been

internalized by principals and reinforced by others in the

school, making it difficult for principals to admit to any need

for professional development themselves or to recognize the

dynamic potential of staff contributions to decision making.

Furthermore, it is difficult for staff to propose divergent views

or ideas about the school’s effectiveness when the principal is

seen in such a dominant position. (Leslie Jones et al; The Importance of Professional Learning communities for School Improvement)

Basing my interpretation of the teacher’s action on above quote, the teacher might have thought that had she did not practiced the lesson prior to classroom observation she would not have passed the standard of the principal.

What are the questions on the papers the principal had with her during the observation to gauge if my teacher was at par with her standard that she would be able to say that my teacher is competent that I would not know. But to get to the conclusion that the principle has the last say with regard to what is quality teaching and competence in the knowledge of subject matter is without a doubt the principal alone.

This thought is not something new to me, I have always have the thought that principal has the highest knowledge not just in running the affairs of the school but also in each subject that is being taught in her school.

Carmichael proposed that the notion of principal omnicom-

petence be “ditched” in favor of principals’ participation in

professional development. Kleine-Kracht (1993) suggested

that administrators, along with teachers, must be learners:

“questioning, investigating, and seeking solutions” (p. 393) for

school improvement. The traditional pattern that “teachers

teach, students learn, and administrators manage is completely

altered.

[There is] no longer a hierarchy of who knows

more than someone else, but rather the need for everyone

to contribute” (professional learning communities; p15).

Coming across above article could be a breath of fresh air for the teachers, their thoughts will be sought and valued. They would be encouraged to think that they have earned the level of being credited for their knowledge and teaching experience. They will be considered at par with their principal in having the need for improvement, brainstorming opportunities and the privilege to experience decision making.

Having the right PLC we can stop from saying, “in the ideal world principals collaborate with their teachers and share the burden of decision making”, this is  now a reality. May not be true to all schools or partially practiced in a school, eventually this will be universally practice with is wide range of benefits not just for teachers but also for the principals.

Knowing that it’s a support group and not pointing fingers to who is wrong and who is always right but it’s a group of educators seeking to understand where the missing piece of teaching skill is and how best to help, encourage one another to provide best education to the students.

Something that struck me the most in this module is that, the students who attends your class are not the only students you have, but each students in the school is your student, teachers should care for other students by helping other teachers in every way possible.

Reference:
1. Professional Learning Communities; p15
2. Leslie Jones et al; The Importance of Professional Learning communities for School Improvement

EDS 111 – Principles of Teaching

Professionalism in Teaching Profession

There were several teachers in my high school and elementary years that until now I have not forgotten how effectual and influential their actions and conduct were. Now that I have completed this module I could say that many of them were able to balance the requirement of the curriculum and their own way of teaching that well benefited. Their compliance did not diminish their efficiency in teaching but all the more surface their passion, knowledge and unique skills in teaching.professionalism

There were times that some teachers would say that we have to change our resource books because the government wants this and that… their actions were very ethical and respectful of the authority of the government and never shown their frustrations in the class. I guess it was a good example of what obedience is all about, no complaints just follow. Maybe this could be interpreted as passive obedience and lack of critical thinking on their part but that is not something that I will dwell on, it is definitely a different topic to share.

My point here is, there may have some disappointments and frustrations on the part of the teachers to be told what to when they were the one who tried to read their students mind to know what and how best to teach them. And those that gives orders or dictates act as if they know best and that they are the experts interfere and discourages them but we did not feel it. For us every day was just another day to learn and same level of enthusiasm and passion were demonstrated by each teacher.

As a student our way of showing we believe on their knowledge and that they are professionals in our eyes is that we listen and believe on what they say, we paid proper respect whenever we see them in campus our outside campus. When I was a student I did not have any experience that my classmates went overboard with their craziness because they felt that the person in front of them did not know what to do, did not deserve their respect or acting in a manner that is not professional, they go crazy because they were youths and that’s how best they know how to express themselves.

I want to believe that factors that affect professionalism in our country is not initially there to harm teachers or to eventually have them lose their autonomous, it’s effecting pressure to produce good quality of graduates by providing guidelines and standard that somehow is one-sided, strict and incapable of adjusting on specific situations  and or not displaying common sense.

EDS 103 – Theories of Learning

Soaring high. Finish the race.

 

While living there are a lot of challenges, each facets of life and journey has its own roadblock. Ones view of his own capacity determines how the person will take each roadblocks and outcome is dependent on the action the person chose. never_give_up__tattoo_

Let me share with you some practical ways I did to overcome each roadblocks of my life that any distant learner can apply. The first one that I would like to share with you is that, I always set my mind to the point in time in the future wherein I will look back with a smile on my face ( because I know I would smile) how I overcome a roadblock. This somehow encourages me to push on – no room for quitting.

Just like anybody else, I doubt myself on being able to do things that other people can do well so naturally. Thinking that “that’s their strength not mine”, “my brain is wired differently” or that, “their parents might have given them more support that’s why they can such and such” but there were also moments that I said to myself that, if I put my heart and mind to this then I can do it just like them.  And I believe saying that to myself again and again has change my own self-knowledge of what I believe I can do and what I believe I can’t do.

“Self-beliefs of efficacy play a key role in the self-regulation of motivation. Most human motivation is cognitively generated. People motivate themselves and guide their actions anticipatorily by the exercise of forethought. They form beliefs about what they can do. They anticipate likely outcomes of prospective actions. They set goals for themselves and plan courses of action designed to realize valued futures”. ( Self-Efficacy, Albert Bandura Stanford University; http://sites.education.uky.edu/motivation/self-efficacy-overview/)

Past accomplishments can always be a good motivation, knowing that I was able to do some of the things I planned to do propel me to do more. When tasks get complicated and schedule gets too cramped up and all I see are lists of things to do I try to step away and look at my situation through the lens of my past accomplishments. Nothing like that gets me more charged up to finish what I have to finish.

One last thing, just like how it was mentioned in this module about model. I always try to motivate myself by looking at those people who I know have more challenging schedule and complicated things to do yet reach their goals. I focused my eyes on the

To summarize it all, the behavior I want to share with you is a behavior that does not allow any reasons to quit and expect less of him. Let us all soar high, finish the race we set for ourselves. Just like the last practical way I shared to with you, let’s focused on how others can do it. We should not also be scared or be conscious to put ourselves out there and be the model that others can follow. There’s nothing wrong with being good at something when it positively encourage others to be same.

Resources:
1. Bandura – Social Learning Theory (https://www.simplypsychology.org/bandura.html)
2. Self-Efficacy, Albert Bandura Stanford University; http://sites.education.uky.edu/motivation/self-efficacy-overview/
3.Self Efficacy: Why Believing in Yourself Matters (https://www.verywell.com/what-is-self-efficacy-2795954)

 

 

EDS 111 – Principles of Teaching

There’s More In Teaching Than Meets The Eye

meets the eye

I was a critical student, whoever was in front of the class facilitating the discussion will be scrutinized by my eyes. Every teacher that I had met for the first week of each school year was sized up by how she/he spoke, how she/he made eye contact with us and how she/he conducted herself/himself when in the classroom. Funny though, because I didn’t know much about the subject yet and definitely I knew nothing about checking a teacher’s mastery of the subject. Nevertheless I did this my whole college life.

I equated my teacher’s mastery of the topic with how he taught us in the class, for me if the teacher has mastery of the subject/discipline then he should be able to teach us what he knows well, I should be able to understand the subject clearly and deeply.

You can’t teach what you don’t know. That was the notion I stood on before this module. It was very rigid, inconsiderate and unfair. Not to mention, it sounded very ignorant. Ignorant of the truth and reality that yes a person can be so knowledgeable about a discipline but is not skilled to impart that knowledge especially to a group of people with different learning abilities. I remember one professor in one of my law subjects, she would discuss a couple of articles in our class per session, and she would cite other articles that may sound almost the same but once studied thoroughly one would know that the articles are not the same. Every question we had thrown at her was answered completely but, what we were looking for was a practical application for better understanding.  We were told that she has not lost any case from the time she started her law practiced however, imparting that knowledge to us was a different story.

Well at some point we could also say that it’s true, a teacher could not teach what she does not know. For example, one of my professors in college had an emergency at home and she had to go home to attend to it, she asked a good friend of hers to man our class because we can’t be loitering around in the university. Since this other teacher was teaching a different subject she was not able to continue the discussion from where we left off the last time.

Knowing how to teach ones mastery of knowledge is not enough, integration of technology is a necessity. The benefits of including technology in education stretch from teachers’ convenience in simplifying a complex study, real time monitor of students understanding, to students’ freedom and creativity in conveying their understanding of what was studied and their access to different information available from all over the world to substantiate their understanding. But including technology in the picture of teaching could also be another concern that teachers have to deal with. As we all know technology cannot be boxed or contained, so a non-techie person like me will not just learn the appropriate tools (e.g. specific apps or software) that I should use but, to also be confident in navigating the tools with all it’ complexities to feel comfortable using them to help my students reach their full potential.

I have very little interaction with technology compared to those people around me, I only use a laptop for my work and maintained needed apps in my mobile and laptop, those are only related to my work and this study which are very few compared to the numbers of apps commonly used now. I just have a couple of maintained social media as well and seldom open and checks posts of other people. As a soon to be full pledge teacher, this attitude has to be changed, I have to embrace the need to use technology not just for teaching purposes but to also use it to get the attention of the students or else it’ll be so hard for me to reach out to them and have a good vibrant engagement. This is one of those few things in this module that sticks to me so much. I have to let go of my thinking that technology is just an add-on, a class can live without it. Now I know that it’s a misguided notion, with technology come various activities for teaching, real time feedback, quicker access to information, collaboration of ideas with fellow classmates is unlimited, the list could just go on and on. So for me who stayed away from technology will have to embrace the joys it brings to learning.

Having technology alone is not enough to impart knowledge without a teacher with good content knowledge. A teacher with a good teaching skill would know what technology to use for a specific study/discipline.  We cannot over emphasize the importance of the 3 knowledge and how strongly they are interconnected in providing education to a diverse group of learners.

Reference:
1. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) (Arizona State University. (2017). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) [Video file]
2. : What is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge? (Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2006). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge? Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1), 60-70.)
3. Singapore’s 21st-Century Teaching Strategies (Education Everywhere Series) [Youtube]